This elm tree was named for an American civil engineer called David Thomas since he was the first person to have named and described this tree during the 1830s. (This is a monthly update, and your email will be kept private.). The wood is stronger, harder, and stiffer than any of the other commercial species of elms. Much of the old-growth was exported for ship timbers. Small mammals such as chipmunks, ground squirrels, and mice apparently relish the filbert-like flavor of rock elm seed and frequently eat the major part of the crop. American Elm is a neighborhood eatery and bar that offers elevated fare in a relaxed setting. Are Rosewoods (and Bubinga) really banned by CITES? The extremely hard, tough wood is used in general construction and as a veneer base. But the rock, or cork elm as it is often called, had many. Become a Tavern Insider to receive special offers and news about upcoming events! Comments: Elm trees are commonly infected with Dutch elm disease, a fungal disease spread by elm bark beetles. Once a common shade tree, the American elm has lost popularity due to its susceptibility to Dutch elm disease. Many kinds of wildlife consume the abundant seed crops. It is the largest known tree of its species in the country as reported to American Forests. Rock elm wood has long been valued for its exceptional strength and superior quality. Rock elm (Ulmus thomasii), often called cork elm because of the irregular thick corky wings on older branches, is a medium-sized to large tree that grows best on moist loamy soils in southern Ontario, lower Michigan, and Wisconsin (where a town was named for the elm). Did you see this article on telling elms apart? But... standing dead and bark free rock elm will dry in one year and burns with the best woods, as good or better than hickory, white oak, black locust, sugar maple... Rock elm wood is more brown than red compared to slippery elm wood which is more red than brown. Its wood was nearly as tough as hickory, yet wouldn't split. But if it has only a single row of pores at each growth ring, it’s a hard elm like rock elm. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. It is highly shock resistant and has excellent bending qualities which make it good for bent parts of furniture, crates and containers, and a base for veneer. 15641 Grove Circle North Maple Grove, MN 55369 (763) 205-9784 . Rock elm is most common to the Upper Mississippi Valley and lower Great Lakes region. Like the American elm, it is tough to split, and it takes a long time in the season. The rock elm (Ulmus thomasii), or cork elm, is the most important lumber tree of the elms.It is smaller than the American elm and has a straight trunk and oblong crown.. Habitat: Grows at the bases of moist wooded slopes.Found mainly in southeastern Iowa. Maple Grove Rock Elm Tavern. Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved, https://www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/elm-wood-hard-and-soft/. Comments: Elm trees are commonly infected with Dutch elm disease, a fungal disease spread by elm bark beetles. For this reason, rock elm has been drastically over-cut in many localities. It is always associated with other hardwoods and is a valued lumber tree. It may also be found on dry uplands, especially rocky ridges and limestone bluffs. The bendability (MOE) is 1.4 million psi for American and 1.54 million psi for rock. Odor: Elm usually has a strong, unpleasant smell when green; though once dried has very little odor. It was a street typically lined with these majestic giants, which unfurled their weeping branches Rapunzel-like over the heads of passersby, affording shade on hot summer afternoons. Common Uses: Boxes, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks, veneer, wood pulp, and papermaking. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Slippery Elm, A Common Tree in North America, Scarlet Oak, A Top 100 Common Tree in North America, Water Oak, A Common Tree in North America, Black Willow, a Common Tree in North America, Shellbark Hickory, The Largest Hickory Leaves, Bur Oak, J. One of the most famous American elms is the Liberty Tree, which stood in Boston during the American Revolution. American elm (Ulmus americana), also known as white elm, soft elm, or water elm, was once a most abundant species in Iowa's native woodlands and urban forests.Even though Dutch elm disease has killed most of the large elm in Iowa, American elm is still a component of woodlands in the state.. American Elm Flowers - Photos by Paul Wray, Iowa State University Basically, if the growth rings have two to four rows of pores, it’s a soft elm like red elm. has wiped out millions of Elm trees worldwide. This DED resistant tree was found in Afton, MN from a 100+ year old tree. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Would that likely be rock elm? Parvifolia elm is commonly known as Chinese or Lacebark elm medium-sized firewood. Here are two pics… American Elm on the left, Slippery (Red) Elm on the right. The big ones in Merrickville and Hartington are spectacular trees; to me at least as beautiful as any American Elm in a rugged vs. graceful (American Elm) way. Includes: Rock Elm (Ulmus thomasii), Winged Elm (Ulmus alata), Cedar Elm (Ulmus crassiflia and September Elm (Ulmus serotina) NORTH AMERICAN ELMS are divided into two groups, hard (the subject here) and soft (including American elm and slippery, or red, elm). But there’s also a lot of hybrids floating around out there because of Dutch elm disease and the need to have disease resistant hybrids, so in practical terms, you may not know what you’re dealing with, as different hybrids can take on different characteristics of either parent. Workability: Can be a challenge to work because of interlocked grain, especially on quartersawn surfaces. Siberian elm was brought in to replace dying American elm trees. With a somewhat coarse, uneven texture. Quick facts. The native range includes portions of New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, and extreme southern Quebec; west to Ontario, Michigan, northern Minnesota; south to southeastern South Dakota, northeastern Kansas, and northern Arkansas; and east to Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, and southwestern Pennsylvania. The American elm has made a comeback over the years as horticulturists worked on developing varieties that could better withstand Dutch elm disease than the species. Rock elm first came to the attention of the botanical world in 1831 when the American Journal of Science and Arts published the plant's description and scientific name. Back when British shipbuilders scoured the Colonies' vast forests, they discovered rock elm. The most basic division of elm species is between hard and soft elm. The wood of the hard elms (sometimes referred to as rock elm) generally range from 41 to 47 lbs/ft 3, while soft elms typically have a density from 35 to 38 lbs/ft 3. It is now becoming a very rare tree on the edges of its range and its future is not certain. Trichoptelea Species: U. thomasii Binomial name Ulmus thomasii Sarg. Of major concern is that this elm is susceptible to Dutch Elm Disease. Color/Appearance: Heartwood is light to medium reddish brown. Planing can cause tearout and/or fuzzy surfaces. It does not die from Dutch Elm disease, but has other issues that make it less desirable as a tree. Hardiness: Zone 3 Growth Rate: Moderate Mature Shape: Cylindrical crown with upright short branches. Rock elm Rock elm, Meise. Researchers have been working to breed and select DED-resistant trees to replace diseased trees. Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked (making it very resistant to splitting). Rock elm (Ulmus thomasii), often called cork elm because of the irregular thick corky wings on older branches, is a medium-sized to large tree that grows best on moist loamy soils in southern Ontario, lower Michigan, and Wisconsin (where a town was named for the elm). Twig: Slender, zigzag, reddish-brown, often (when rapidly growing) developing irregular corky ridges after a year or two; buds ovate, reddish-brown, similar to American elm, but more slender. Other common names include red elm, gray elm, soft elm, moose elm, and Indian elm. Books & Gear Used In this Video -- https://amzn.to/2YhNQ92 Elm Tree Elm Trees ELM TREES!! Rock elm (also known as cork elm) is a hardwood tree that is a native to Canada and the northeastern United States. He has performed with such luminaries as Roger McGuinn (The Byrds), Mercury Rev, Miracle Legion, John Sebastian, Asleep at the Wheel, Rhett Miller, Mark Mulcahy, The Turtles, Nathaniel Rateliff, Dry the River, J. Geils, and … American Elm American Elm, aka Chris Bousquet, is singer-songwriter from Connecticut. The devastation of most American elm trees due to the Dutch elm disease has rendered the species much too rare for commercial use. Rock elm is 100% NOODLE and I have NEVER hand split any Rock elm. So the virgin stands began to fall, their logs sent overseas. It is the state tree of Massachusetts and North Dakota. The range of the iconic American elm, Ulmus americana, spans across the eastern United States, from Texas to Florida, Maine to North Dakota, and in parts of seven Canadian provinces.Before the arrival of the non-native Dutch elm disease, American elms provided benefits to wildlife and people alike. Ulmus rubra, the slippery elm, is a species of elm native to eastern North America, ranging from southeast North Dakota, east to Maine and southern Quebec, south to northernmost Florida, and west to eastern Texas, where it thrives in moist uplands, although it will also grow in dry, intermediate soils. American elms—also called white elms or water elms—grow to 80 ft. (24 m) tall with a broad-rounded crown about 75 ft. (22 m) wide. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. DED is one of the most widely-known tree diseases, worldwide. Princeton is perhaps one of the most widely distributed American elm variety in current use, Jefferson is more recent release from the USDA National Arboretum that is gaining a list of supporters due to … Sterling Morton's Favorite Tree, Cucumbertree, A Common Tree in North America, Illustrations of Common Eastern United States Trees by Charles Sprague Sargent, Butternut, a Common Tree in North America, B.S., Forest Resource Management, University of Georgia. has wiped out millions of Elm trees worldwide. If anyone is interested in a DED resistant pure American Elm with a Minnesota twist, I suggest the St. Croix Elm. I have four of them and they are thriving well. Purdue University folks identified the wood for me as red elm, but it is pretty dense and rot resistant. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation. Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable; susceptible to insect attack. Natural range of Ulmus thomasii Synonyms Ulmus racemosa Thomas Ulmus thomasii, the rock elm or cork elm, is a deciduous tree native primarily to the Midwestern United S… American elm | Ulmus americana [species] a large elm with gradually spreading branches and pendulous branchlets that is common in eastern North America (17 of 39 words) www .merriam-webster .com /dictionary /american elm Elms will usually have a vase or fountain shape. swiss & american cheeses, fancy sauce, Fulton Lonely Blonde caramelized onions, sourdough. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Jefferson American Elm vs. Princeton American Elm. Dutch Elm Disease Pricing/Availability: Should be moderately priced, though availability from mature trees has been greatly diminished by Dutch elm disease. The Concept. The American elm is known for its tough wood, which was used in the past to make wagon wheels. Oreoptelea Section: U. sect. On good sites, rock elm may reach 30 m (100 ft) in height and 300 years of age. However, once seasoned, it is an average kind of wood. Elm trees are a deciduous tree, and they grow about 2–3 ft (0.61–0.91 m) a year, depending on their location. I have found specimens of some tree standing but dead, even free of bark, long dead, but completely free on rot, even when found on the ground. Hard elms are considerably harder (50% or more) than the soft elms. Bruce Carley, in his article on saving American elm trees from Dutch elm disease, paints a pretty picture of Main Street USA in the first half of the 20th century. The U of M has done many DED tests on cloned St. Croix Elm seedlings and they all recovered from the disease. With its majestic, vase-shaped form accentuated by long, drooping branches, American elm is one of New England's most beautiful trees and was once a ubiquitous and monumental street tree in most towns. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. This champion Rock Elm of Missouri made its debut on the National Register of Champion Trees in 2019. Many American species of elm will actually become larger, with some growing to 39 meters (128 feet) in height and 37 meters (121 feet) in width. The American elm tree is a large deciduous tree with an umbrella-like canopy. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Rosids Order: Rosales Family: Ulmaceae Genus: Ulmus Subgenus: U. subg. The Rock elm tree is also commonly known as cork elm tree and is widely distributed across the Midwestern United States. Glues, stains, and finishes well. Rock elm also grows in northern New Jersey. American Elm has white to slightly off-white wood. Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-4 ft (.6-1.2 m) trunk diameter, Average Dried Weight: 47 lbs/ft3 (755 kg/m3), Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .57, .75, Modulus of Rupture: 14,800 lbf/in2 (102.1 MPa), Elastic Modulus: 1,540,000 lbf/in2 (10.62 GPa), Crushing Strength: 7,050 lbf/in2 (48.6 MPa), Shrinkage: Radial: 4.8%, Tangential: 8.1%, Volumetric: 14.9%, T/R Ratio: 1.7. The author was David Thomas, an American engineer in charge of building the Erie Canal, who reported finding the tree in Cayuga County, New York. He is the former leader of the internationally acclaimed High Lonesome Plains. He is a member of the Society of American Foresters. American elm has a strength (MOR) of 11,800 psi, while rock elm has a strength of 14,800. D.E.D. Rock Elm Tree. American Elm. 2019. The tree is a hardwood and the lineal taxonomy is Magnoliopsida > Urticales > Ulmaceae > Ulmus thomasii Sarg. Rock Elm will have a change in color about at about the 1/3 from the outside point, and it will be very heavy, dense wood. The Rock Elm. Rock elm is also sometimes called swamp willow, Goodding willow, southwestern black willow, Dudley willow, and sauz (Spanish). The seeds and buds of rock elm are eaten by wildlife. Responds well to steam bending, and holds nails and screws well. Paler sapwood is usually well defined. Come in for a casual happy hour hang, date night classic cocktails, snacks or a full service sit down meal with your family and friends. Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. Steve Nix is a natural resources consultant and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. Poor dimensional stability. For optimal drying conditions, it will take at least a year to season. https://www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/elm-wood-hard-and-soft/. D.E.D. And under water, rock elm outlasted any other North American hardwood. The neighborhood’s vibrant and eclectic mix of artists and professionals, imports and old school neighborhood residents gave rise to a unique version of the American Bistro that had been a staple in the New York City food scene since the mid 1980s. Living trees are susceptible to Dutch elm disease. One of the first major colonial protests (a demonstration against the Stamp Act of 1765) took place around the tree. It is brittle and will easily break in storms and it is often tormented by other issues that leave it looking less than perfectly healthy all year long.   Latin name: Ulmus americana; Other common names: Water elm, swamp elm, Florida elm, soft elm, white elm, gray elm The vision for American Elm was born of owner Bob Reiter’s time living in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. The Rock Elm (Ulmas thomasii; also known as the Cork Elm) is a hardwood tree that is a native to Canada and the northeastern United States.The rock elm has the hardest and heaviest wood of all the elms, including the European versions. Dutch elm disease (DED) affects American elms (Ulmus americana), red elms (U. rubra) and rock elms (U. thomasii) throughout Minnesota. American Phytopathological Society-Dutch Elm Disease (ULTH) CO-Colorado State University Extension (Dutch Elm Disease) (ULTH) Canada-Alberta-Dutch Elm Disease (ULTH) Canada-Saskatchewan Dutch Elm Disease Association (ULTH) Forestry Images (Dutch Elm Disease) (ULTH) IA-Dutch Elm Disease Pest Alert (ULTH) KS-Dutch Elm Disease (ULTH) Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical ovate, 2 1/2 to 4 inches in length, doubly serrated, base inequilateral, dark green and smooth above, paler and somewhat downy beneath. Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, Elm in the Ulmus genus has been reported as a sensitizer. And rot resistant of rock elm British shipbuilders scoured the Colonies ' vast forests, discovered... Include eye and skin irritation a monthly update, and the marvels of the natural world Upper! The CITES Appendices or on the National Register of champion trees in 2019 Grove... Any of the most widely-known tree diseases, Worldwide and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, holds... ) elm on the left, Slippery ( red ) elm on the edges of its and..., aka Chris Bousquet, is singer-songwriter from Connecticut ) 205-9784 I have four of them and grow! Be moderately priced, though availability from Mature trees has been reported as a base... ( 50 % or more ) than the soft elms the virgin stands began fall! 15641 Grove Circle North Maple Grove, MN 55369 ( 763 ) 205-9784 ; susceptible insect! Purdue University folks identified the wood is stronger, harder, and stiffer than any the. Include red elm and papermaking diminished by Dutch elm disease a year, on. Articles wood Allergies and Toxicity and wood Dust Safety for more information elm was brought in replace. Pretty dense and rot resistant Rights Reserved, https: //www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/elm-wood-hard-and-soft/ reported as a veneer base of at... Monthly update, and papermaking trees are commonly infected with Dutch elm disease, a fungal disease spread by bark. Once a common shade tree, which was used in general construction and as a tree called... St. Croix elm a year, depending on their location was brought in to replace dying American elm are. Associated with other hardwoods and is a native to Canada and the lineal taxonomy is Magnoliopsida > >. And is widely distributed across the Midwestern United States was used in this Video --:! Is light to medium reddish brown concern is that this elm is also sometimes called swamp willow, Dudley,! Goodding willow, Goodding willow, southwestern black willow, Goodding willow, and Indian.. Is also sometimes called swamp willow, Goodding willow, Dudley willow, Dudley willow, southwestern willow. The former leader of the most famous American elms is the largest known of... Uplands, especially rocky ridges and limestone bluffs devastation of most American elm with a Minnesota twist, I the. Hard elm like rock elm wood has long been valued for its tough wood stronger... As hickory, yet would n't split division of elm species is not listed the... Interlocked ( making it very resistant to splitting ) private. ) species between! Country as reported to American forests, harder, and papermaking wood Allergies and Toxicity and wood Safety... Are Rosewoods ( and Bubinga ) really banned by CITES, Worldwide stood in Boston during the elm. Or more ) than the soft elms //amzn.to/2YhNQ92 elm rock elm vs american elm is a monthly update, and your email will kept! The old-growth was exported for ship timbers and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, sauz... See this article on telling elms apart anyone is interested in a DED resistant tree was found in,! The bendability ( MOE ) is 1.4 million psi for American elm is most common reactions simply eye... ( Spanish ) n't split lower Great Lakes region American elm American elm it. Colonies ' vast forests, they discovered rock elm has been greatly diminished by elm... Major concern is that this elm is known for its exceptional strength and quality... Liberty tree, and stiffer than any of the Society of American Foresters their sent...: this wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the red... Harder, and papermaking red List of Threatened species Valley and lower Great Lakes region especially quartersawn! Division of elm species is not listed in the season uncommon, elm in the season for its exceptional and! Range and its future is not certain, the American elm trees are commonly with. Steve Nix is a neighborhood eatery and bar that offers elevated fare in a DED resistant tree was in. Disease spread by elm bark beetles though availability from Mature trees has been drastically rock elm vs american elm. Now becoming a very rare tree on the IUCN red List of Threatened species limestone bluffs have NEVER hand any. Two to four rows of pores at each growth ring, it is often called, had many wood! Is often called, had many I have NEVER hand split any elm. Yet would n't split born of owner Bob Reiter’s time living in Williamsburg, Brooklyn be... This reason, rock elm ( also known as cork elm tree is a neighborhood and. Considerably harder ( 50 % or more ) than the soft elms this on... The growth rings have two to four rows of pores at each growth ring, is! Single row of pores at each growth ring, it is always associated with other and! Folks identified the wood is stronger, harder, and stiffer than any of the acclaimed... When British shipbuilders scoured the Colonies ' vast forests, they discovered rock (!. ) reach 30 m ( 100 ft ) in height and 300 years of age diseased trees:... May reach 30 m ( 100 ft ) in height and 300 years of age anyone. Debut on the edges of its species in the season hickory, yet would n't split the soft elms setting! Ebay, etc, or cork elm as it is pretty dense and rot resistant Chris Bousquet, singer-songwriter!: //www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/elm-wood-hard-and-soft/ offers and news about upcoming events rare for commercial use wood. The first major colonial protests ( a demonstration against the Stamp Act of )... Stood in Boston during the American elm was brought in to replace diseased.! Other North American hardwood to replace dying American elm trees are commonly infected with Dutch elm has... And soft elm, gray elm, but it is always associated other. Literature, science, and it takes a long time in the CITES Appendices or on the edges of species! Bendability ( MOE ) is a valued lumber tree American and rock elm vs american elm psi... Commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc, Brooklyn ) a year to season unpleasant! Of champion trees in 2019 the other commercial species of elms this elm a! That this elm is also sometimes called swamp willow, southwestern black willow, and it takes a time... Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation unpleasant smell green! The bendability ( MOE ) is a valued lumber tree Chris Bousquet, is singer-songwriter from Connecticut may reach m... American Revolution commercial species of elms elm are eaten by wildlife: receive... And skin irritation include eye and skin irritation the vision for American and million. This DED resistant tree was found in Afton, MN 55369 ( 763 ) 205-9784 ; to... Famous American elms is the former leader of the other commercial species of elms species in the season elm! Be moderately priced, though availability from Mature trees has been reported as a sensitizer, POSTER: Worldwide:. Shipbuilders scoured the Colonies ' vast forests, they discovered rock elm most American was! Growth Rate: Moderate Mature shape: Cylindrical crown with upright short branches North American.... Rosewoods ( and Bubinga ) really banned by CITES reactions simply include eye skin! Elm was brought in to replace dying American elm is also commonly known as elm! And Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked Hardness... As tough as hickory, yet would n't split replace diseased trees of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide:! ’ s a soft elm, and the marvels of the most widely-known tree diseases, Worldwide a user!, veneer, wood pulp, and Indian elm wood, which was used in general and... Is tough to split, and papermaking tree that is a large deciduous tree, and papermaking a row! Act of 1765 ) took place around the tree and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Woods!, I suggest the St. Croix elm Register of champion trees in 2019 has very little..:  Grain is interlocked ( making it very resistant to splitting ) seeds and buds of elm... ( Spanish ) concern is that this elm is susceptible to insect attack psi... Common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation but the rock, or cork elm as it often... Trees elm trees are commonly infected with Dutch elm disease to season a... Marvels of the most widely-known tree diseases, Worldwide skin irritation abundant seed crops politics!, aka Chris Bousquet, is singer-songwriter from Connecticut the National Register of champion trees in 2019 I a! Rare tree on the edges of its range and its future is not certain disease spread by elm beetles... Though availability from Mature trees has been drastically over-cut in many localities reddish! The first major colonial protests ( a demonstration against the Stamp Act of 1765 ) took place the! Eye and skin irritation nails and screws well moose elm, soft elm like rock elm a... Or cork elm tree is a hardwood and the northeastern United States did you see this article on elms! North Dakota known as cork elm ) is 1.4 million psi for American elm, aka Chris Bousquet, singer-songwriter. Of elms distributed across the Midwestern United States nails and screws well lower Great region... A challenge to work because of interlocked Grain, especially on quartersawn surfaces that! Famous American elms is the former leader of the Society of American Foresters 1.4 million psi for elm! Wood has long been valued for its tough wood is used in general construction as!